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ARC

Process Discovered

ARC scientists discovered that high concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in groundwater are transported to arctic streams and rivers and released to the atmosphere. These findings revealed a key process missing from previous carbon budgets in the Arctic, and led to similar discoveries around the world.

Kling, G. W., G. W. Kipphut, and M. C. Miller. 1991. Arctic lakes and rivers as gas conduits to the atmosphere: implications for tundra carbon budgets. Science 251:298-301.
Cole, J. J., Caraco, N., Kling, G. W., and T. Kratz. 1994. Carbon dioxide supersaturation in the surface waters of lakes. Science 265:1568-1570.
Kling, G. W., G. W. Kipphut, M. C. Miller, and W. J. O'Brien. 2000. Integration of lakes and streams in a landscape perspective: the importance of material processing on spatial patterns and temporal coherence. Freshwater Biology 43:477-497.
George W. Kling

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