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Perceptions of Justice

Contrary to popular perception, Whites in urban Baltimore are more likely than African-Americans to live near facilities that pose health risks. A long history of segregation denied African-American residents the advantage of living close to workplace factories that may now expose those close by to toxins.

Boone C. G. 2002. An Assessment and Explanation of Environmental Inequity in Baltimore. Urban Geography 23: 581-595.
Boone, Christopher G., Buckley, Geoffrey L., Grove, J. Morgan, and Chona Sister. 2009. Parks and People: An Environmental Justice Inquiry in Baltimore, Maryland. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99(4): 1-21.
Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, Mary L, Grove, J. Morgan, Boone, Christopher G., Groffman, Peter M., Irwin, E., Kaushal, Sujay, Marshall, Victoria, McGrath, Brian P., Nilon, Charles H., Pouyat, Richard V., Szlavecz, Katalin, Troy, Austin, and Warren, Paige. 2011. Urban ecological systems: Scientific foundations and a decade of progress. Journal of Environmental Management. 92: 331-362.
Holly Beyar, Project Facilitator of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, LTER
Industries that release toxins into the environment are more likely to be found in white rather than African-American neighborhoods in Baltimore. Ironically, the present pattern is the product of residential and occupational segregation that privileged white workers with the opportunity to live near factory jobs.

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