Groffman, P.M., C.T. Driscoll, T.J. Fahey, J.P. Hardy, R.D. Fitzhugh, G.L. Tierney. 2001. Colder soils in a warmer world: A snow manipulation study in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 56:135-150.
Fitzhugh, R.D., C. T. Driscoll, P. M. Groffman, G. L. Tierney, T. J. Fahey and J. P. Hardy. 2001. Effects of soil freezing disturbance on soil solution nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon chemistry in a northern hardwood ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 56:215-238.
Severe soil freezing occurred in mid-winter, 2006 at HBR. Ironically, a warming climate is likely to result in more soil freezing in northeastern forests because the insulating effect of the mid-winter snowpack may be lost.
Experimental snowpack removal resulted in soil freezing and subsequent high fluxes of nitrate from soils at HBR.
Fitzhugh et al. (2001), see above.