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Landscapes at the Jornada LTER site show complex patterns related to vectors that redistribute resources: water flows from small mountain ranges to the basin (lower left), wind moves soil and nutrients (upper right), cattle concentrate impacts near water sources (center), and human activities occur on-site via roads (center) and on adjacent private land (lower right).
USDA ARS, Jornada Experimental Range archive
Jornada landscapes were dominated by perennial grasses in 1858. By 1915, 63% was shrub-dominated, and almost all of the area (92%) was shrubland in 1998.
Modified from Gibbens et al. 2006.