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Magnuson, J.J., D.M. Robertson, B.J. Benson, R.H. Wynne, D.M. Livingstone, T. Arai, R.A. Assel, R.G. Barry, V. Card, E. Kuusisto, N.G. Granin, T.D. Prouse, K.M. Stewart, and V.S. Vuglinski. 2000. Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 289:1743-1746.
Weyhenmeyer, G.A., D.M.Livingstone, M. Meili, O. Jensen, B.J. Benson, and J.J. Magnuson. 2011. Large geographical differences in the sensitivity of ice-covered lakes and rivers in the Northern Hemisphere to temperature changes. Global Change Biology 17: 268-275.
Ice formation along the shoreline of Lake Mendota Wisconsin, a core study lake of the North Temperate Lakes LTER site. Ice duration records for Lake Mendota have been kept since 1855.
Duration of ice on North Temperate Lakes LTER study lake, Lake Mendota, Wisconsin from 1855 to 2010. Trend line indicates the average long-term shortening of ice cover on the lake by approximately 20 days over the period of record. This downward trend is mirrored by several lakes and rivers throughout the Northern Hemisphere.
Magnuson et al. (2000) and North Temperate Lakes LTER database (http://lter.limnology.wisc.edu).