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Illustration of spatial variation of the landscape in terms of land cover (a), carbon storage (b) and CO2 exchange with the atmosphere (c) for an 18 x 18 km region around the Trout Lake Field Station, Wisconsin. Positive values of CO2 exchange denote movement of CO2 from the landscape into the atmosphere (CO2 source); negative values, flux from atmosphere into landscape (CO2 sink). Highest rates of C storage and positive areas of CO2 closely match lake and wetland cover in the Northern Highland Lake District.