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PAL

Penguins And Climate Change

PAL scientists have documented an 85 percent reduction in Adélie penguin populations since 1974 and determined the cause to be altered cloud cover, winds, snowfall, sea ice cover, and other climate changes.

Ducklow, H. W., K. Baker, D. G. Martinson, Q. L.B., R. M. Ross, R. C. Smith, S. E. Stammerjohn, M. Vernet, and W. R. Fraser. 2007. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the West Antarctic Peninsula. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 362:67-94.
Erdmann, E.S., Ribic, C.A., Patterson-Fraser, D.L., Fraser, W.R. 2011. Characterization of winter foraging locations of Adélie penguins along the western Antarctic Peninsula, 2001-2002. Deep Sea Research II (in press).
Fraser, W. R., W. Z. Trivelpiece, D. G. Ainley, and S. G. Trivelpiece. 1992. Increases in Antarctic penguin populations: reduced competition with whales or loss of sea-ice due to global warming. Polar Biology 11:525-531.
Patterson, D.L., Easter-Pilcher, A.L., & Fraser, W. R. 2003. The effects of human activity and environmental variability on long-term changes in Adélie Penguin populations at Palmer Station, Antarctica. In, "Antarctic Biology in a Global Context", A.H.L. Huiskes, W.W.C. Gieskes, J. Rozema, R.M.L. Schorno, S.M. van der Vies and W.J. Wolff (eds), Proceedings VIIIth SCAR International Biology Symposium, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 301-307.
Dr. William R. Fraser
Flooded Adélie penguin colony, Torgersen Island, Western Antarctic Peninsula. Notice the submerged eggs.
J. Blum
Change in ice-dependent Adélie penguin populations, PAL study Region, 1974-2010. Chinstrap and Gentoo penguin populations, two ice-intolerant species, have increased over the same time period.
Updated from Ducklow et al. 2007.

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