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Scale Matters

PIE scientists revealed ways that human activities and natural processes interact to control the flow of water and nutrients from the land to the ocean.

Claessens, L., C. Hopkinson, E. Rastetter, and J. Vallino. 2006. Effect of historical changes in land use and climate on the water budget of an urbanizing watershed. Water Resources Research 42:W03426.
Williams, M., C. H. Hopkinson, E. B. Rastetter, and J. Vallino. 2004. N budgets and aquatic uptake in the Ipswich R. basin, northeastern Massachusetts. Water Resource Research 40:W11201.
Wollheim, W. M., B. J. Peterson, C. J. Vorosmarty, C. Hopkinson, and S. A. Thomas. 2008. Dynamics of N removal over annual time scales in a suburban river network. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences G03038, doi:10.1029/2007JG000660.
Wilfred Wollheim
Example of storm event flood in a suburban headwater stream (Burlington MA), showing how storm flood waters go over bankfull, deposit sand, and scour the riparian zone clear of leaf litter. Peak storm flow had occurred prior this picture being taken.
Long term data set of nitrogen exports from the watershed (1994-2009) compared to budget estimates of net inputs to the watershed indicate that more than 80% of estimated inputs are removed by watershed processes, but that this effectiveness declined in wetter years.
Wollheim et al. In Review; PIE-LTER database.

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